2.1 Extra-judicial political repression in 1968

<< No 2 : 30 June 1968 >>

In the first issue of the Chronicle a number of people were named who have been excluded from the Party for signing letters [CCE 1.2] about the trial of Galanskov-Ginzburg and others, and for certain other “ideological” misdemeanours. The surnames of certain people dismissed from their jobs were included. Since then the number of people who have suffered one or another form of repressive measure or reprimand has increased. There follows a list indicating the cause and nature of these repressive measures.

We remind readers that the Letter of 170, the Letter of 80, and the Writers, Ukrainian and Novosibirsk letters were written after the trial, and speak about violations of glasnost and legality. The Letter of 120 was written in defence of Alexander Ginzburg; the Letter of 99 was in defence of Alexander Volpin. In listing the reasons for repressive measures, letters sent before the trial are also included: the Letter of 116, demanding glasnost and open access to the trial; the Letter of 44, demanding an open trial, in response to rumours that the trial would officially be closed; and the Letter of 31, expressing concern about the fate of Alexander Ginzburg in conditions when there might be violations of legality and a lack of glasnost.

[91 names, all but last two in Russian alphabetical order.
Those mentioned are from Moscow unless indicated otherwise]

1. Yury Aikhenvald
poet, translator and schoolteacher of Russian language and literature; former inmate of Stalin’s camps, rehabilitated; Letter of 170; dismissed from his job under Article 49 of the Labour Code, reinstated after applying to the courts [CCE 5.1, item 2].

2. Alla Alexandrova
a first-year student in the Historical and Philological Faculty of the Pedagogical Institute; signed the Letters of 116 and 170, since expelled from the Komsomol and the Institute.

3. Igor Alexeyev
a lecturer in philosophy at Novosibirsk University; signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, has since suffered a severe Party reprimand.

4. Ludmila Alexeyeva [Alekseyeva]
an historian and editor at the Nauka [Science] publishing house; signatory to the Letters of 116, 44 and 80, she has since been expelled, in her absence, from the Party by the district committee and dismissed from her post as “professionally unsuitable”; she has appealed to the courts.

5. Nikolai Andronov
an artist and signatory to the Letter of 120; has suffered a severe Party reprimand.

6. Pavel Antokolsky
a poet and member of the Writers’ Union; a signatory to the writers’ Letter, he has suffered a severe Party reprimand.

7. Arkhangelsky
Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences, professor at Moscow University, signed the Letter of 99, severe Party reprimand.

8. Boris Balter
a prose writer and member of the Writers’ Union; a signatory to the Writers’ letter, he has suffered a severe Party reprimand.

9. Mikhail Beletsky
a mathematician resident in Kiev; a signatory to the Ukrainian letter; has been dismissed “at his own request”.

10. Ludmila Belova
a graduate in the philosophical sciences from the Institute of Art History; signatory to the Letter of 80; expelled from the Party by the district committee.

11. Boris Birger
an artist and signatory to the Letter of 31 and the Writers’ letter; expelled from the Party by the district committee and relegated from full to candidate status [also see  CCE 2.2] in the Moscow section of the Artists’ Union.

12. Ludmila Borisova
a sociologist resident in Novosibirsk; a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, she has suffered a severe Party reprimand.

13. Nikolai Vilyams
a mathematician and lecturer at the Institute of Precision Chemical Technology, former inmate of Stalin’s camps then rehabilitated; signed the Letters of 80 and 99, dismissed “at his own request”.

14. Vladimir Voinovich
a prose writer and playwright; member of the Writers’ Union and signatory to the Writers’ letter. His two plays, “I want to be honest” and “Two comrades” have been withdrawn from the Soviet repertoire, the latter play having been in rehearsal in 36 theatres across the Soviet Union but not yet staged.

15. Zoya Volotskaya
linguist at the Institute of Slavonic Studies, signed the Letter of 170, defence of her dissertation indefinitely postponed.

16. Sergei Vorobyov
editor at the Soviet Encyclopaedia publishing house; he declared at a general meeting that no discussion could be held nor criticism passed on letters about the trial when no one present had read them; has since been expelled from the Komsomol.

17. Ilya Gabai
a teacher of history and literature, previously an editor at the Institute of Asian Peoples. In 1967 he spent over four months in Lefortovo Prison as a result of the demonstration on Pushkin Square but was released in the absence of any concrete evidence of guilt. A signatory of the Letters of 40 and 170 and (with Yuly Kim and Pyotr Yakir) the appeals “To figures in science, culture and the arts”, and to the Budapest conference [CCE 1.4]. Dismissed from temporary employment on 1 March, a month earlier than expected. In May joined an expedition of geologists but at the last moment was rejected on the direct instructions of the KGB.

18. Piyama Gaidenko
Master of Philosophical Sciences, research officer at the Institute of the International Workers’ Movement, signed the Letter of 80. She was expelled from the Party by the district committee and removed from her post, but was subsequently readmitted to the Party by the Party Control Committee and her expulsion commuted to a severe Party reprimand.

19. Valeria Gerlina
a schoolteacher in Russian language and literature, and the wife of Yury Aikhenvald; formerly an inmate of Stalin’s camps, since rehabilitated; she was a signatory to the Letter of 170; dismissed from her post under Article 49 of the Labour Code; reinstated after applying to the courts [CCE 5.1, item 2].

20. Yury Gerchuk
a specialist in art at the Institute of the Theory and History of Architecture; a signatory to the Letters of 116 and 80, he was expelled in his absence [also see CCE 2.2] from the Moscow Section of the Artists’ Union by the presidium of MSAU.

21. Alexei Gladky
holds a doctorate in the physical and mathematical sciences at the Institute of Mathematics in the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences and is a lecturer at the University of Novosibirsk; a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, he was dismissed “through a reduction in staff” as part of the abolition of the department of mathematical linguistics.

22. Yury Glazov
a postgraduate member of the Institute of Asian Peoples in the historical sciences and a linguist in Slavonic languages; a signatory to the Letters of 31, 80 and 170, and the appeal to the Budapest conference [CCE 1.4]. He was expelled by decision of the Academic Council.

23. Igor Golomshtok
a specialist in the arts and a signatory of the Letters 116 and 80, he was relegated in his absence [also see CCE 2.2] to the status of candidate member of the Moscow Section of the Artists’ Union for a period of six months by the presidium of the MSAU.

24. Mstislav Grabar
A Master of Physical-Mathematical Sciences and senior lecturer at the Institute of Aviation Technology, signed the Letters of 116, 80 and 99, dismissed “at his own request”.

25. Pyotr Grigorenko
former army Major-General and expert in military cybernetics; a Master of Military Sciences and formerly an engineer a construction directorate, he wrote personal letters to the CPSU Central Committee about the trial of Vladimir Bukovsky and the RSFSR Supreme Court with an exposition of evidence which he had no opportunity to give at the trial in January; a signatory to the Letters of 116 and 80, the appeal to the Budapest conference [CCE 1.4]. and other declarations in defence of legality and civil rights, he was summoned to the KGB in February for a “prophylactic chat”, on account of which he then wrote a letter to Yu.V. Andropov; he has since been dismissed “through a reduction in staff”.

26. A. Gurvich
Doctor of Biological Sciences at the Institute of Experimental Medicine, signed the Letter of 120, dismissed from the directorship of his laboratory.

27. Yury Davydov
Master of Philosophical Sciences at the Institute of the History of the Arts, signed the Letter of 80, severe Party reprimand.

28. Felix Dreizin
a linguist and Master of Philosophical Science at the University of Novosibirsk; a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, dismissed “at his own request”.

29. Boris Yefimov
an editor and signatory to the Letters of 116 and 170, he was dismissed “through a reduction in staff” but has since been reinstated.

30. Boris Zolotukhin
barrister and counsel to Alexander Ginzburg; he asked for the verdict of not guilty for his defendant. Expelled from the Party by the district committee “for his non-Party and un-Soviet line of defence”, removed from his post as director of an office for legal consultations and from the presidium of the Moscow City Bar association. Finally, in June he was expelled from bar itself, i.e. deprived of his right to appear for the defence. The reasons for his expulsion were: that he “negligently uttered politically obscure formulations which gave our political enemies the opportunity to exploit them to the detriment of the Soviet State and Soviet justice, and did not take measures to deny them”. His appeal for readmission to the Party, which was presented to the Party Control Committee, has not been granted.

31. Kirill Ilychev
a physicist in the Institute of Kinetics of the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences; a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter; expelled from the Komsomol by the Komsomol district committee.

32. Irina Kamyshanova
a typist and witness at the trial of Galanskov and the others, signed the witnesses’ letter, dismissed from her job ‘at her own request’.

33. Yury Karyakin
a Master of Philosophical Sciences, literary expert and member of the Writers’ Union, he made an anti-Stalinist declaration at a celebration in memory of Andrei Platonov; has been expelled from the Party in his absence by the Moscow City Party committee.

34. Yuly Kim
a teacher of Russian language and literature at the residential school for physics and mathematics at Moscow State University and the author and performer of several well-known songs; a signatory to the Letters of 116, 44 and 170, the appeals (with Ilya Gabai and Pyotr Yakir) “To figures in science, culture and the arts” and to the Budapest conference [CCE 1.4], he has been dismissed from his post “at his own request” and prevented from giving public performances of his songs; arrangements for him to act in the leading role in a film have been broken off.

35. Alexander Kon
physicist at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, signed the Letter of 120, expelled from the Komsomol.

36. Vladimir Konev
a lecturer in philosophy at the University of Novosibirsk; a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, he has suffered a severe Party reprimand.

37. Lev Kopelev
critic and expert in German literature, a Master of Philosophical Sciences and a member of the Writers’ Union; a former inmate of Stalin’s labour camps, he was rehabilitated and readmitted to the Party and the Institute of Art History; a signatory of the Letter of 120 and author of a personal letter on the subject of the trial, he wrote an article “Why should the rehabilitation of Stalin be impossible?” for the Austrian Communist periodical Tagebuch. Expelled from the Party by the district Party committee, dismissed from his post by order of the director without the confirmation of the Academic Council, and his books and articles, previously accepted for publication, have been withdrawn.

38. Esfir Kositsyna
a teacher of English at the School of Physics and Mathematics attached to the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences; a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter; she has been expelled from the Party and dismissed from her post “at her own request”.

39. Mikhailina Kotsyubinskaya
a writer resident in Kiev and signatory to the Ukrainian letter, she has been dismissed from her post.

40. Irina Kristi
a mathematician at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics; a signatory to the Letters of 166, 170 and 99, she has been dismissed “through a reduction in staff”.

41. Alexander Kronrod
a Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences and director of a laboratory of computer mathematics at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics; a signatory to the Letter of 99, dismissed “through a reduction in staff”.

42. Lydia Kronrod
mathematician, lecturer at the Pedagogical Institute, signed the Letter of 99, dismissed by decision of the Academic Council.

43. Leonid Krysin
linguist, Master of Philological Sciences, Institute of Russian Language, signed the Letter of 120, removed from the editorial board of the journal The Russian Language in School.

44. Sergei Larin
critic, translator of Polish prose, works on the journal Soviet Literature (published in foreign languages), signed the writers’ Letter, expelled from the Journalists’ Union.

45. Pavel Litvinov
a physicist at the Institute of Precision Chemical Technology; he wrote a letter to Soviet and foreign Communist newspapers about his “prophylactic chat” with the KGB about the trial of Vladimir Bukovsky; a signatory to the Letters of 116 and 44, an appeal (with Larisa Bogoraz) entitled “To world public opinion” and the appeal to the Budapest conference [CCE 1.4], he was dismissed for “shirking” a few days before the trial began in January and immediately after the publication of his first letter in the Western press; in March he was forced to undergo another “prophylactic chat” with the procuracy in which he was threatened with prosecution under Article 190-1 of the Criminal Code.

46. Vyacheslav Luchkov
a physiologist at the Institute of Psychology, signed the Letter of 170, expelled from the Komsomol by the Komsomol district committee.

47. Margarita Luchkova
engineer, signed the Letter of 170, expelled from the Komsomol.

48. Vadim Meniker
Master of Economic Sciences, Institute for the Economics of the World Socialist System, well known for his letter about the Sinyavsky-Daniel trial, signed the Letters of 116 and 80, dismissed by decision of the Academic Council.

49. Alexander Morozov
expert in literature, an editor at the Art publishing house and signatory to the Letter of 120, he was dismissed “through a reduction in staff”. His repeal for reinstatement has been refused.

50. Dmitry Muravyov
an editor at the Art publishing house, he was also dismissed “through a reduction in staff”. His appeal to the courts for reinstatement has been refused.

51. Boris Naidorf
a lecturer in physics at the School of Physics and Mathematics attached to the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences and signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, he has been dismissed “at his own request”.

52. Nikolai Naumov
a member of the Writers’ Union working at the Foreign Literature magazine; a signatory to the Letter of 120, he has been expelled from the Party and demoted at work.

53. Valentin Nepomnyashchy
critic, member of the Journalists’ Union, head of the Soviet literature department in the magazine Questions of Literature, signed the ‘writers’ letter’. Removed from post of departmental head.

54. Alexander Ogurtsov
Master of Philosophical Sciences, research officer at the Institute of the International Workers’ Movement, signed the Letter of 80.

55. Valery Pavlinchuk
a physicist at the Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power, he was expelled from the Party by the Party town committee for his activities on unofficial publications [samizdat]. The Kaluga Region Party Committee added his signature on the Letter of 170 to the reasons for his expulsion. He was then deprived of his security pass and dismissed “through a reduction in staff”. The Party organisation of the section where Pavlinchuk had been Party organiser opposed the decision of the Party town committee as a breach of Party regulations. The organisation has since been dissolved.

56. Leonid Pazhitnov
Master of Philosophical Sciences, research officer at the Institute of the History of the Arts, signed the Letter of 80. On the Party district committee’s recommendation he was dismissed from his job.

57. Vladimir Pertsovsky
a lecturer at the School of Physics and Mathematics attached to the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences  and signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, he has been dismissed from his post.

58. Yury Pilyar
prose-writer, member of the Writers’ Union, an inmate of Mauthausen [Austria] and then of Stalin’s camps, rehabilitated, signed the Writers’ Letter. Severe Party reprimand.

59. Grigory Pomerants
a philosopher and specialist on India working at the Fundamental Library of the Social Sciences [INION] and a former inmate of Stalin’s camps; he has written several articles for unofficial publications, two of which were published in the Phoenix 66 collection. He is a signatory of the Letter of 170. The examination of his dissertation at the Institute of Asian Peoples has been postponed for an indefinite period.

60. Alexander Pyatigorsky
Master of Philological Sciences, specialist in Indian studies at the Institute of the Peoples of Asia, signed the Letter of 80, dismissed ‘for absenteeism’. The absenteeism was provoked by the fact that he was not granted either leave or a business-trip in order to attend a conference in Estonia of which he was one of the organizers, and he went ‘off his own bat’.

61. Vladimir Rodionov
Doctor of Biological Sciences (Institute of Medical Biochemistry), signed the Letter of 120.

62. Svetlana Rozhnova
an historian and postgraduate student at the University of Novosibirsk; a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, she has been expelled from the Party.

63. Natalya Romanova
mathematician at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, signed the Letter of 120, expelled from the Komsomol.

64. Mikhail Roshchin
a prose writer, member of the Writers’ Union and signatory to the writers’ letter; he has suffered a severe Party reprimand.

65. Konstantin Rudnitsky
a member of the Writers’ Union, Master of Philosophical Sciences at the Institute of Art History; a signatory of the Letters of 116 and 31; he has suffered a severe Party reprimand.

66. Valentina Savenkova
a worker at the Lihachyov car factory and the wife of Pyotr Yakir; an inmate of the Stalinist labour camps before her rehabilitation; a signatory to the Letters of 116, 44 and 170, she has been dismissed “through a reduction in staff”.

67. Nadezhda Svetlichnaya
resident in Kiev and a signatory of the Ukrainian letter; she has been dismissed from her post.

68. Grigory Svirsky
a prose writer and member of the Writers’ Union; he made a speech on censorship and the revival of Stalinism at a Party meeting of Moscow writers and has since been expelled from the Party by the Party district committee.

69. Dmitry Segal
linguist at the Institute of Slavonic Studies, signed the Letters of the 31 and 170, defence of his dissertation indefinitely postponed.

70. Fedot Suchkov
critic, member of the Writers’ Union, subjected to repression in Stalin’s time, signed the “writers’ letter”.

71. Moisei Tulchinsky
Master of Historical Sciences, took part in the Great Patriotic War, decorated, works at Nauka publishing house, signed the letter of 120.

72. Natalya Ustinova
typist and witness at the trial of Galanskov and the others, signed the Letters of 116 and 44 and the witnesses, dismissed ‘at her own request’.

73. Abram Fet
a doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at the Institute of Mathematics at the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences and a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter; he has been demoted by the Academic Council to position of junior research associate.

74. Isaac Filshtinsky
Master of Historical Sciences, senior research officer at the Institute of the Peoples of Asia, subjected to repression in Stalin’s time, wrote a letter with his wife philologist Anna Rappoport to A. N. Kosygin asking for a humane review of the case. Has since been expelled from the Party by the Party district committee.

75. Sergei Fomin
Doctor of Physical-Mathematical Sciences, professor at Moscow University, signed the Letter of 99 mathematicians on behalf of Volpin. He has been expelled from the Party.

76. Aron Khanukov
chief engineer in a building materials plant, signed the letter of ten friends of Ginzburg sent to Komsomolskaya pravda. Removed from his job as chief engineer.

77. Yury Tsekhmistrenko
a Master of Physical and Mathematical Sciences resident in Kiev and a signatory to the Ukrainian letter, he has been expelled from the Party.

78. Maya Cheremisina
a linguist and Master of Philological Sciences at the University of Novosibirsk; she has been dismissed “through a reduction in staff” owing to the closure of the department for mathematical linguistics.

79. Victor Shakhsuvarov
engineer, signed the Letter of 170, dismissed ‘because of redundancy’.

80. Galina Shestopal
Master of Physical-Mathematical Sciences, teacher at the Pedagogical Institute, signed the Letter of 99, dismissed by decision of the Academic Council.

81. [Yury] Shikhanovich
a mathematician, Master of Pedagogical Sciences and lecturer in the department for mathematical linguistics in the faculty of Philology at Moscow State University; a signatory of the Letter of 99, he has been dismissed from his post.

82. Boris Shragin
Master of Philosophical Sciences, research officer at the Institute of the History of the Arts, signed the letter of 80 and gave his address as sender of the letter; also signed appeal to the Budapest conference (more about this appeal later). On the Party district committee’s recommendation dismissed from his post.

83. Shtengel
a member of the Institute of Automatic Research at the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences and a signatory to the Novosibirsk letter, he has been dismissed “through a reduction in staff”.

84. Georgy Shchedrovitsky
Master of Philosophical Sciences, signed the Letter of 170, expelled from the Party.

85. Grigory Yablonsky
a chemist in the Institute of Catalysis at the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences , songwriter and performer, and signatory of the Novosibirsk letter. Expelled from the Party. An article by Yu. Shapokov violently attacking Yablonsky has been published in Soviet Russia newspaper.

86. Isaac Yaglom
mathematician and Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences at the Pedagogical Institute, dismissed by decision of the Academic Council.

87. Boris Yampolsky
a prose writer and member of the Writers’ Union; he has suffered a severe Party reprimand for an anti-Stalinist speech read, though not by Yampolsky himself, at the celebration in memory of Andrei Platonov.

88. Ivan Yakhimovich
a philologist, graduate of the University of Latvia, chairman of Young Guard [Jauna Gvarde] collective farm, Kraslava district, Latvian SSR and external student at the Latvian Agricultural Academy. Wrote a personal letter to the CPSU Central Committee and was expelled from the Party in his absence by the Party district committee. Removed from chairmanship of collective farm.

89. Irina Yakhimovich
the wife of Ivan Yakhimovich and teacher of Russian language and literature at the Young Guard collective farm school; she has been dismissed from her post.

90. Raisa Berg
a Doctor of Biological Sciences, geneticist at the Institute of Molecular Biology at the Siberian Section of the Academy of Sciences and a signatory of the Novosibirsk letter. She has been dismissed “at her own request”.

91. Lev Kvachevsky
a chemist resident in Leningrad and signatory to the Letters of 170 and the 10 Leningraders. He has been dismissed “through a reduction in staff”.